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5SafetyBasicsOtherwarehouseissues

Safety Basics - Order Picking

 

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Other warehouse issues

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Good business management practices involve drawing upon the skills, knowledge and experiences of

Sprains and strains within the Best Working Zone
Even when work is confined to between shoulder height and knee level, and close to the body, injuries can occur due to:
1. The characteristics of the objects being handled (weight, centre of gravity, stability, ease of grip, etc)2. Speed of pick and time spent picking (work pace, frequency and duration, etc))3. Environmental factors (cold, wind chill, heat etc).To manage risks associated with sprains and strains in the Best Working Zone it is necessary to:
  • Assess these risks with regard to the specific circumstances and address them.
Sprains and strains when reaching to lift or handle objects
Reaching to lift or move objects may lead to injury. Bending or twisting while reaching will substantially increase the risk as will handling the objects while in restricted spaces.

To manage the risks associated with sprains and strains when reaching to lift or handle objects:
  • store objects on pallets in walk-in bays with sufficient room around the pallets to get close to items before handling
  • ensure that items which are frequently picked can be slid close to the body before lifting
  • the weights of objects that are frequently lifted at a distance away from the body should not exceed the values in this table corresponding to the distance away from the body
graphique des zones entorses et contraintes de levage
  • use mechanical assistance to move pallets into the aisle to gain access to all sides
  • store goods in gravity feed shelving so that all items can be picked from the front of the shelving
  • layer pick pallets so that objects can be slid close to the body before lifting
  • use a well designed lightweight picking stick to get move small objects close to the body before lifting.
Sprains and strains when moving to the picking pallet
Bending, twisting, lifting and carrying are affected by the distance between the picking point and the pallet being picked to. Access can be impeded by congestion, layout, configuration, work rules regarding traffic flows or allowing replenishment to occur where employees are order picking. On the other hand, the point being picked to may be too close, eg conveyor location. Vertical distances should also be minimised, eg moving goods from a high rack to a low picking pallet, or from a floor-level pallet to on top of a high load.

To manage risks associated with carrying loads it is necessary to:
  • Ensure the distance is as close as practicable between the picking point and the pallet or trolley being picked to, without creating a congestion hazard or constraining movement. For example, enough space is provided between racking and conveyors to allow employees to take a step to place objects on pallet or conveyor.
  • Ensure working heights are similar and in the Best Working Zone, for example by height adjustable pallet jacks, rise and fall platforms, order picking mobile plant, spring loaded, hydraulic or similar devices able to be inched.
Sprains and strains caused by stretch wrapping
Manual wrapping (hand wrapping) may require awkward postures, over-exertion or heavy lifting.

To manage risks associated with carrying loads it is necessary to:
  • Use string or narrow wrapping as compared to wide wrap to stabilise objects on pallets.
  • Use automatic stretch-wrap machine where stretch wrapping is frequent or a risk exists of a manual handling injury.
Sprains and strains caused by packaging
Packaging is a key variable dictating the nature of manual handling in a warehouse. Packaging should allow objects to be picked with minimal cutting, leverage, or twisting, and to be handled by a single person. Higher risk of injury occurs with objects of irregular shapes or sizes, or where the centre of gravity is unknown or shifts. It may be necessary to talk with suppliers to get these issues addressed.

To manage risks associated with packaging it is necessary to:
  • Design packages and storage configuration for grip e.g. handles, hand-holds, inbuilt straps so boxes can be pulled, the load inside is balanced
  • Purchasing specifications require consistency in packaging eg square, regular centre of gravity
  • Ensure the amount of glue is appropriate – commonly there is too much in the wrong places
  • Eliminate the need for knives in the workplace eg purchase part-glued loads, redesign strapping method.
  • Order goods in packages that suit the work environment - non-slip in wet or cold situations, do not collapse when stressed or saturated, enable good grip even where employees wear gloves
  • Identify heavy awkward or unstable objects as a manual handling hazard eg by stickers, on label
  • Provide a weight label on all objects that can be seen without shifting or juggling the object
  • Configure software so packaging is included among the safety criteria considered when determining bin allocation
Injuries caused by motivating people to work beyond their capacity
Methods motivating people to work harder faster or longer should be reviewed to determine whether they increase the risk of injury. The hire of temporary staff, employees working overtime, use of engineered standards or Bonus systems are not inherently risk factors in themselves. These and other methods however can foster a competitive work environment where people work at or above their capability to endure without injury. This can undo other work done in the warehouse to ensure that work is carried out in the best working zone.

Examples that might motivate people towards higher risk of injury include Bonus payments, early knockoff, workplace norms of exceeding engineered standards, allocation of overtime, allocation of privileged status (eg promotion, task variety, ongoing or continued employment for temporary staff), priorities when supervising staff (eg, no enforcement of proper procedures for safe manual handling coupled with video camera surveillance and high-output-oriented individual performance plans).

Providers of Preferred-Methods-based systems expect users to understand and be able to adjust the assumptions of the system to reduce risk to employees. WorkSafe requires that such systems will not drive unsafe behaviours.

To manage risks associated with motivation systems it is necessary to:
  • Where injury rates are high or transferred, review motivation methods to determine whether they contribute to the risk of injury, and change them if they do or may contribute to injury.
  • Train employees in assumptions of engineered work standard or preferred methods systems operating at the workplace.
  • Have a method that allows employees to alert the people operating engineered standards system of breaches of the assumptions, so assumptions can be changed accordingly. For example, do the following assumptions apply?
    1. Will each employee use exactly the same method in exactly the same way in exactly the same time? Employees should be able to adopt several different but equally safe and healthy working postures to reduce the risk of injury.
    2. Is the system of work safe for every employee, not just the average employee? How are individual differences recognised such as build-up periods following absences (after illness, holidays etc), upon recruitment, or when fatigued.
    3. Do all lifts occur within the best working zone, or without twisting, or onto a pallet always at the best working zone? These assumptions may not be valid where work occurs frequently or occasionally above shoulder height or below knee level.
    4. Does work always occur in a comfortable climate? Is adjustment made for work in heat or humidity, or in cold situations such as chiller rooms?
    5. Do relief breaks occur as calculated? For example, do micropauses still occur if the goods in the pick list are all located in one aisle?
    6. Does work duration affect expecations? Assumptions based on a 9-hour day or a 42-hour week may not apply to a 50-hour week
    7. Does new knowledge result in changed assumptions? For example, new knowledge of braking distances for powered pallet movers may require changes in expected speed.
  • Review work intensification occurring with new technology (e.g the configuration of electronic-based picking systems) to ensure they are set up within human capability limitations.
Fatigue
Fatigued employees are more likely to be injured.

To manage risks associated with fatigue it is necessary to:
  • Have a fatigue management policy in place that manages physical stress on employees
  • Minimise double handling, for example,
    1. Ensure the picking sequence takes into account the objects being stacked so the picking pallet does not need re-packing to avoid crush or damage to picked objects;
    2. Encourage customers to bulk buy so that manual handling of stock is not required, for example, minimum ordering requirements, bulk/unit or multi buy so the work method doesn't require pick/replace/pick and the employee can pick several objects without repetitive moves;
    3. Obtain extra storage off-site for peak periods to minimise aisle congestion and manual stock transfers;
    4. Eliminate manual handling of incoming stock, for example, incoming stock is compatible with racking bay height so the top layer doesn't have to be manually removed before putting away.
  • Scanners and other picking systems are ergonomically designed to minimize fatigue and gripping injuries. (Including when gloves and other personal protective equipment is worn, eg cold storage)
  • To reduce eye strain, ensure day and night lighting is adequate for all visual tasks including general work, reading labels, and sighting high-visibility clothing.
Sprains and strains from handling empty pallets
A surprisingly large number of injuries to Storepersons in the transport, storage and retail sectors from pallets are due to manually handling empty pallets. Standard Pallets even when empty are heavy and awkward to manually handle.

To manage risks associated with handling empty pallets it is necessary to:
  • Remove empty pallets at floor level using hand pallet jacks
  • Lift and stack pallets with mechanical aids such as forklifts, overhead cranes or purpose-built stackers
  • Install an empty pallet return mechanism within the storage system eg within the pallet racking
  • Ensure there is no single-person lifting and carrying of empty Standard wooden pallets.
Preventing stock from falling from racking
Employees have been killed by loads falling from height, where unstable stacks have collapsed.

To manage risks associated with stock falling it is necessary to:
  • Stretch-wrap or strap pallets before placing replenishment stock at height
  • Provide barrier methods to prevent potentially unstable loads from falling, eg nets
  • Install rear stops or barrier mesh on racking
  • Use stillages or similar unit load devices for storage at height
  • Do not allow stock to pulled down from height to the floor or to be caught during picking
Amputations
People can wrench or lose their fingers when they fall or jump from racking or mobile plant and their hands get caught. This is more likely where people climb up racking or shelves.

To manage risks associated with amputations it is necessary to:
  • Provide equipment to raise employees so there is no need to climb up racking
  • Have a policy of 'no wearing of rings or jewellery'
  • Ensure the 'no climbing of racking' policy is communciated at induction and is reinforced by supervision.

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Dossiers parents :

Voir:  manutention charges equationreviniosh    picking\picking_1.php   manutention_generalites.php  et  introduction_ergonomie.php   prelevementosha_usa.php



 

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