n air temperature is controlled during refrigeration. Le retour
temp�rature de l'air est contr�l�e au cours de la r�frig�ration.
les facteurs de risque
information on possible risks for the transport, handling and storage processes,
available from TIS (Transport Information Service
www.tis-gdv.de ). L'information requise sur les risques �ventuels
pour le transport, la manipulation et les processus de stockage, disponible
sur le TIS (Transports Service d'information
risk of larceny/theft
risque de vol / vol
of the illegal removal or appropriation of goods or objects. Risque
d'enlèvement ill�gal ou l'appropriation de biens ou d'objets.
distinction is made between simple larceny (ie without the use of force)
and compound larceny (ie with forced entry by breaking and entering or by
copued keys. Une distinction est faite entre le vol simple (c'est-à-dire
sans l'utilisation de la force) et de compos�s vol (c'est-à-dire avec force
par introduction par effraction ou par copued cl�s.
angle de roulis
at which a ship moves around its longitudinal axis. Angle à un navire
qui se d�place autour de son axe longitudinal.
due to rolling. Oscillation dus au roulement.
is the name given to the movement of a ship around its longitudinal axis.
C'est le nom donn� au mouvement d'un navire autour de son axe longitudinal.
or aluminum frame construction in conjunction with removable wooden/aluminum
gates that hold the tarpaulin of a truck, trailer, semi-trailer or a swap
body. En acier ou en aluminium dans la construction de structures
en liaison avec amovible en bois / aluminium portes qui retiennent la b�che
d'un camion, remorque, semi-remorque ou une caisse mobile.
type of open-sided construction is sometimes known as a tarpaulin truck.
Ce type d'ouverture unilat�rale de construction est parfois connu sous le
nom de b�che de camion.
Ro / Ro navire
Cargo ship on which the mobile cargo can be rolled directly on and off board
(by lorry, trailer, etc.) by means of bow, stern and side doors (ramps).
Rouliers: navire de charge sur les mobiles qui les marchandises peuvent
être lamin�s directement sur et hors bord (par camion, remorque, etc) par
le biais de la proue, arrière et lat�rales (rampes).
contrast to this, cargo loaded and discharged on other cargo ships by means
of their own or external loading tackle (vertical handling). En revanche,
fret charg� et d�charg� sur d'autres navires de charge par le biais de leurs
propres ou externes de chargement s'attaquer (manutention verticale).
ropes or belts wound around an item. Hawsers, des cordes ou des courroies
plaie autour d'un point.
the one hand as a basis for forming a knot, on the other hand as a method
of lashing. D'une part comme une base pour former un noeud, d'autre
part, un mode de saisine.
round turn lashing is a widespread "securing method". Malheureusement,
tour ronde d'arrimage est un vaste "garantir m�thode".
is absolutely unsuitable for securing a cargo as the cargo can move "freely"
in the loop and no securing effect is thus achieved. Il est tout
à fait impropres à garantir une cargaison que la cargaison peut se d�placer
"librement" dans la boucle et pas de garantir effet est donc atteint.
safe to transport
s�curit� pour le transport
is secured appropriately if it is loaded, stowed and secured in such a way
that it cannot be damaged by events that can be reasonably expected during
carriage. Cargo est garantie appropri�e si elle est charg�e, charg�s
et arrim�s de telle sorte qu'ils ne puissent être endommag�s par les �v�nements
que l'on peut raisonnablement pr�voir pendant le transport.
febrile intestinal and general diseases caused by salmonellae. Infectieuses,
f�brile et intestinale g�n�ral maladies caus�es par les salmonelles.
pest that attacks stone fruit, pomaceous fruit and berries, as well as decorative
woods und structural lumber. Quarantaine que les attaques fruit à
noyau, pomaceous fruits et des baies, ainsi que de d�coration bois et bois
on its temperature, air can absorb different quantities of water vapor until
it is saturated (100% relative humidity). En fonction de sa temp�rature,
l'air peut absorber diff�rentes quantit�s de vapeur d'eau jusqu'à ce qu'il
soit satur� (100% d'humidit� relative).
impervious to water vapor used to store goods at risk of corrosion.
Emballage imperm�able à la vapeur d'eau utilis�e pour stocker les marchandises
à risque de corrosion.
are used in sealed packages to maintain an artificial atmosphere with a
relative humidity of < 40%. Desiccants sont utilis�s dans des emballages
ferm�s de maintenir une atmosphère artificielle avec une humidit� relative
de <40%. No
corrosion is possible below this threshold. Pas de corrosion est
possible en dessous de ce seuil.
caused as a result of microorganisms (durable spores) from previous contaminated
loads that are able to attack a subsequent cargo. La contamination
caus�s par des micro-organismes (spores durables) de pr�c�dents contamin�s
charges qui sont en mesure d'attaquer une nouvelle cargaison.
increase within an organic solid without external heat input. Augmentation
de la temp�rature dans un solide organique sans apport de chaleur externe.
semifinished product (semi)
Steel products that have already been shaped by hot-rolling or continuous
casting processes and which are then subjected to further shaping to produce
finished products. These include:
Rough-rolled blocks (blooms with round or square cross-sections), slabs,
billets, boards and ingots.
Trailer with a rear axle assembly that is pulled by a towing tractor or
truck tractor. There are two different kinds of trailer: Semitrailers that
are also permitted in road traffic, and roll trailers (cargo trailers) that
are pulled by towing tractors and are used only in ro-ro operations. These
towing tractors are permitted only in terminal operations, and not allowed
to be used on public roads.
Part of the marking on packages. The shipping mark comprises:
- Identification mark: eg initial letters of recipient or shipper
- Identification number: eg the recipient's order number
- Total number of items in the complete consignment
- Sequential number of the package in the consignment
- Final destination and port of destination.
shock and/or tilt indicators
These indicators are attached to sensitive loads for monitoring purposes.
They indicate whether specified threshold values have been exceeded either
in terms of acceleration or tilt.
|shrinkage in mass
Loss of volume, for instance with leather goods as a result of drying out.
Loss in volume, reduction (weight loss) of goods during transport or storage.
Shrink wrapping involves enclosing the package contents in shrink film (flat
or tubular film), heat sealing any unsealed portions and separating the
package from the film web or covering the package contents with a shrink
cover. Depending upon the shape and weight of the package contents, the
shrink material used should be PE or plasticized PVC film of a thickness
of 0.01 to 0.2 mm, with PE films being particularly suitable for heavy items.
The film is heated from the outside in a shrink-wrap oven or with hand-held
heat gun, thus releasing the captive tension in the film. Shrink films are
produced in either monoaxial (in a single direction) or biaxial (in two
directions) orientation. As the film cools down, it shrinks around the package
contents, applying a very low pressure per unit area.
Physical changes in materials caused by high temperatures; applied in particular
to metals, ceramics and minerals/rock.
sirex wasp (Urocerus gigas L.)
Giant wood wasp. When using packaging made of wood for marine transport
to Australia and New Zealand, the appropriate treatment and certification
of the wood must be observed.
SKD ( s emi k nocked- d
own cars): For export to countries which apply high levels of customs duty
to luxury goods, automobiles are shipped in completely knocked down (CKD)
or semi/part knocked down (SKD, PKD) form. In this case, the package sizes
for the individual components are adapted precisely to the container in
which they are transported, which means that the cargo is secured by tight
Skids are sled-like bases used to facilitate ground conveyance of/securing
of, for example, heavy machinery and machine parts
Cuboid half-finished steel products that are hot-rolled into sheets at the
tapered blocks Voir blocs coniques
Describes the process of attaching slinging equipment (for example, ropes,
chains or webbing slings) to a load in order for it to be lifted/transshipped
safely using lifting gear, for example, a crane.
Rolled sheets are produced in relatively wide strips (eg > 600 mm), also
called wide strip. In order to be able to offer narrower strips, the strips
are cut to slit strip in a slitting unit.
Specifies the position of the container on board the ship, for example using
the Bay Row Tier system.
Rate used to calculate the cost of renting a slot for transporting a single
container on board a ship.
A type of refrigerated container (trade name).
(Latin: adsorbere - take up) Absorption or release of water vapor by a hygroscopic
cargo until equilibrium is reached.
Graphical representation of the sorption behavior of a substance at a specified
These are collapsible stanchions that can be inserted and locked in place
or unlocked and folded down. Stanchions are suitable for providing tight
fitting lateral load securing for many types of load.
A rise in temperature of an organic solid without external heat to a point
where the solid ignites spontaneously.
Containers were traditionally handled using four wire ropes and cranes.
However as the opening angle of the wire ropes placed considerable horizontal
pressure on the tops of the containers, steel framed constructions (spreaders)
were introduced in order reduce these forces. These spreaders have undergone
constant development and are still used on container gantries today.
The force acting on lower packing units as as a result of the units stacked
on top of them. Standardized DIN and ISO symbols are used to identify the
permitted stacking loads.
Different positions of tobacco leaves on the stalk which are harvested at
Rods or bars on the sides and corners of an open means of transport or container,
used to secure the cargo. Removable stanchions are inserted into the stanchion
Poison which enters the body of the insect on food intake (ingestion). Stomach
poisons are usually administered using artificial bait.
Refers to the specific external conditions (humidity, temperature, ventilation)
in which particular products can be stored without risk of a reduction in
value or of damage to the products.
The stowage factor specifies how many cbm or cbf of hold space in a ship
will be taken up by a metric tonne, a US ton, or an Imperial ton (1,000
kg/907.18 kg/1016 kg) of a cargo taking into account gaps, shape of the
hold, number of 'tween decks, supports and the use of dunnage.
/ van carrier
Special self-propelled vehicle for moving containers within the terminal.
Stretch film used to wrap cargo to form bales or to wrap cargo to pallets.
To unpack/unload a container.
Slinging equipment from various materials. Strops are slung round the load
and attached to the hook of the crane.
To pack or load a container.
Transition from the solid to gaseous state without passing through the liquid
Swap bodies are vehicle bodies that are not permanently fixed to the carrying
vehicle. They are similar to containers and are locked to the carrying vehicles
in the same way using twist locks. At the loading bays, the swap bodies
can be stored standing on their own legs. They are suitable for use for
multimodal transport by road and rail and have grappler pockets which allow
them to be moved using gantry cranes.
Classification of sweat water according to intensity. Grades range from
0 (no sweat water) through to 6 (greatest formation of sweat water). The
classification is made by observing the volume of water produced per m²
surface, thus how many grams of sweat water appear for each square meter
for each of the grades.
Increase in volume of solid substances, particularly hygroscopic substances,
(paper, natural fibers) as a result of exposure to moisture.
Congregation of molecules, leads to "sweating" in cereals.
Formation of viscous liquids as a result of humidity and warmth, for example,
in dried fruits.
A large container essentially comprising an ISO frame in which liquid containers
are mounted. They must meet special requirements with respect to pressure-resistance
as a result of the pressures they have to withstand. For this reason, the
actual containers are generally cylindrical or spherical in form. Several
containers can be mounted either horizontally or vertically in a single
frame. Only specific containers must be used for foodstuffs and must be
marked "Potable liquids only". Tank containers for hazardous goods must
meet the requirements of the IMDG code. Half-height tank containers serve
to carry high-density liquids which cannot be carried in normal tank containers
because they cannot be filled to a high enough level and are therefore subject
These are wedges cut at a narrow angle to allow small gaps between items
of cargo to be braced. They are also referred to as slim wedges or driving
T ransformer B ypass U
nit: Component of a remote refrigerated container monitoring system with
data transfer via the power cable. A TBU allows a transformer to be bridged,
that would otherwise not let the data signal pass.
The top of telescope cartons is fabricated as a separate part and overlaps
all four sides of the carton (eg banana boxes).
Transportation during which the optimum temperature for chilled and frozen
products is maintained.
temperature/dew point difference
The difference between the temperature of the goods and the dew point temperature
of the air surrounding the goods.
Differences in temperature within a spatial distance.
T wenty-foot E quivalent U
nit: Corresponds to a 20 foot container, where the container height (8ft,
8½ft oder 9½ft) is not taken into account; unit for counting containers.
Plywood board with a phenolic laminate backing to enhance durability. The
laminate is textured with a screen-printing process.
Pure solid lumber without cavities.
(Greek: thermos - heat, philos - love) Microorganisms that thrive on heat.
(Greek: thigma - contact, touch; taxis - arrangement, sequence) Stimulus
Layer in a container that is numbered from bottom to top.
A method of securing the load by direct or indirect physical contact with
load-bearing components of the means of transport or the transport container.
T ransport I nformation S
Threshold Limit Value (referring to harmful substances in the workplace).
Cooling equipment for supplying of cool air to porthole containers in terminals.
(Greek: toxikon - poison) Poisonous
(Greek: toxikon - poison) The degree to which a substance is poisonous.
Discrepancy between the amount a country imports and the amount it exports.
Evaporation losses in vegetable products as a result of respiration (transpiration).
and positive accelerations are dynamic, mechanical stresses which occur
in two main types during the transportation of goods: N�gatifs et
positifs acc�l�rations sont dynamiques, contraintes m�caniques qui se produisent
dans deux types principaux pendant le transport des marchandises:
regular acceleration forces and -- R�gulières et des forces d'acc�l�ration
irregular acceleration forces. -- Irr�gulière des forces d'acc�l�ration.
acceleration forces primarily occur in maritime transport. R�gulière
des forces d'acc�l�ration se produisent principalement dans le transport
of up to one g (g = 9.81 [m/s²]) and, in extreme cases, even more, may occur
due to rolling and pitching in rough seas. Acc�l�ration maximale
d'un g (g = 9,81 [m / s ²]) et, dans des cas extrêmes, même plus, mai se
produire en raison de roulis et de tangage dans une mer agit�e.
regular acceleration forces have an impact on the effort involved in load
securing. Cette acc�l�ration des forces r�gulières ont un impact
sur l'effort requis en charge le s�curiser.
acceleration forces occur during cornering or when a train passes over switches,
during braking, starting up, hoisting and lowering. Acc�l�ration
des forces irr�gulières se produisent pendant les virages ou quand un train
passe au-dessus des interrupteurs, au cours du freinage, de d�marrage, de
levage et d'abaissement.
acceleration forces are not generally repeated, but they may occur several
times at varying intensities during transport. Ces forces d'acc�l�ration
ne sont g�n�ralement pas r�p�t�, mais ils mai se produire plusieurs fois
à diff�rentes intensit�s pendant le transport.
are the typical stresses of land transport and transport, handling and storage
operations. Ce sont les typique souligne des transports terrestres
et des transports, de manutention et de stockage.
transport-related properties of products
Product properties required for transport, handling and storage processes
Loading, travel and pulp temperatures, eg for sweet oils.
travel or transport temperature
Optimum storage temperature of a product.
Trays are preformed containers made from plastic to take individual fruits
that are particularly sensitive to pressure.
Human disease caused by triciniellae (trichinella spiralis). Household pets,
for example may be secondary hosts. Meat inspections are statutory preventive
(Latin: turgescere - to swell) Inner pressure, distension of cells.
Tightening elements made up of two threaded rods, a threaded barrel and
a lever, usually in the form of a ratchet. Turnbuckles are the preferred
tensioning method when securing loads with chains.
Banana that is becoming ripe to eat.
A securing mechanism for securing containers in a vertical direction; twist
locks are placed between the containers and fastened in the oblong holes
on the container corners.
Grouping together of items for transport into transport units (eg in containers
or on pallets).
Unit loads are parts of a shipment that can be treated as a single unit
during cargo handling and transportation. The size or dimensions of the
unit load can vary according to requirements and to the means of transport
and packaging container available. To optimize the cargo handling, transport
and storage processes, standardization of unit loads is desirable. The most
common unit loads are pallets and components with bases that resemble pallets,
such as pallet boxes, IBCs, etc. The most important properties of a unit
load are that it can be loaded to ensure a tight fit, its modularity and
its stability, the last of which ensures that it can be stowed safely and
will not be damaged by load securing measures.
Temperatures above this limit lead to quality degradation.
In the context of load securing, upright blocking is understood to be wooden
elements inserted vertically in order to take up and transfer loads.
U nited S tates D epartment
of A griculture; US governmental department responsible
for the regulations concerning the import of foodstuffs.
|VCI (Volatile Corrosion
A method used to inhibit corrosion.
(Latin: viscum - tenacity) Degree of resistance to flow in a fluid or semifluid
for gas, caused by internal friction.
The volume-to-payload ratio of a means of transport specifies the volume
available per unit weight payload. In the metric system, it is usual to
specify the ration in cubic meters per metric ton (m³/t). In english-speaking
countries, it is usual to use cubic feet per ton (cu.ft./t).
Plywood board, generally around 2 cm thick, often used for load securing
and for interlayer dunnage or top dunnage.
The percentage of total mass of a substance that is constituted by water.
Classification of goods in accordance with their water content.
Damage as a result of moisture affecting, for instance paper plies, veneered
Frequency band for data transfer via the power cable. The frequencies used
for wide band range from 140 kHz to 400 kHz.
Wireless Local Area Network; a wireless (radio) network used for transfering
data; is also used in offices.
|wire rod coil
Steel product made in rod wire rolling mills with varying cross-sections.
German standards refer to wire rod as a product that can be wound immediately
into coils from the rolling mill whilst still hot.
Coils of wire rod. Depending on the nature of the goods and any intended
subsequent processing these coils are corrosion-sensitive and sensitive
to mechanical damage, for example, kinks forming in the wire. The length
of the winding axis is a critical factor in determining the way they are
wood treatment certificate
Certificate of treatment against insect infestation.
(Greek: xeros - dry, philos - love) Microorganisms that survive at a low
relative humidity of (approximately 75%).
Glossaire - Glossary
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Glossaire Source: http://www.containerhandbuch.de/chb_e/glossar_zentral/glossar_gesamt.html