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‹pied de page›11006115 Copyright 1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
I. Background for the Trainer:
Your company should have a written Powered Industrial Truck Program. If so, each operator should be issued a copy of the program. Passing it out in the beginning of the class would be a good idea so that you can refer to its contents during the training session.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
A lift truck is an important piece of equipment that is used to transfer material, products, machinery, etc., through the facility. When used properly, forklifts are a great asset; however, when operated incorrectly, they can cause tremendous damage to the facility and its employees. This class has been designed to help you become a better forklift operator. If you are an experienced driver, maybe this class will point out a habit that needs to be eliminated to become a safer driver. If you are a brand-new operator, this class will show what type of habits need to be developed to become a safe operator. Remember, participating in this class will not make you a good forklift driver. It is up to you to become a safe and responsible forklift operator.
I. Speaker’s Notes:
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has found that approximately 100 workplace fatalities occur each year in forklift-related accidents. OSHA has also found that approximately 95,000 forklift-related injury accidents occur each year. The litigation surrounding a forklift-related accident or fatality could cause a company to go bankrupt. OSHA believes that improved training will greatly reduce the number of forklift-related injuries and fatalities, so they issued a new training standard. Some of the requirements include classroom and hands-on training along with written and driving evaluations. This training session complies with the classroom training requirements of the new OSHA standard for sit-down counterbalance lift trucks.
I. Speaker’s Notes:
The goal of this training session is to make sure you have a complete understanding of:
Hazards and forklift stability
Inspecting and operating a forklift
At the end of this training session, we’ll take a short quiz to test your understanding of the material presented.
I. Background for the Trainer:
OSHA clearly states that only trained and authorized personnel are permitted to operate a forklift.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
Authorized operators have the authority and the responsibility to prevent unauthorized operators from even getting on a forklift. The untrained individual can easily hurt or kill someone or damage the facility.
Keep pedestrians safely away from the forklift when moving, lifting, etc.
If the forklift is found to be unsafe during a preoperation inspection, the authorized driver has the responsibility to lock it out until it is repaired.
I. Background for the Trainer:
Feel free to change this slide to mention hazards that are specific to your company. Encourage the students to think of other hazards associated with operating the forklift.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
It is important that you are aware of all the potential hazards of the area in which you will be operating the lift truck. Other hazards include operating on dirt or gravel, working around loading docks, pits in the floor, loads that block the forward vision, pedestrians with poor attitudes, etc.
I. Background for the Trainer:
Inspect your forklifts to be sure that they all carry accurate legible nameplates.
If the forklift has been modified or an attachment has been added, a new nameplate must be obtained from the manufacturer to reflect the changes to the capacity of the forklift. If possible, photocopy a nameplate from a forklift to show the employees how to find information on the nameplate.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
OSHA requires a nameplate that is specific to the lift truck and any attachments that are used. Report any forklift that does not have the proper nameplate. The nameplate contains a lot of information, such as weight of the forklift, tire size and pressure, fuel type, etc. However, the most important information to you is the capacity and load center. Capacity: The specific maximum weight of a load that can safely be lifted to the forklift’s maximum lifting height, assuming the center of gravity of the load is within the rated load center. Load center: The distance between the vertical face of the forks and the center of gravity of the load.
I. Background for the Trainer:
The center of gravity is an important concept for all forklift operators to understand. Use blocks or Legosto help demonstrate the location of a load’s center of gravity.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
Before we talk about about capacity and load center, we need to discuss how to determine a load’s center of gravity. The center of gravity is the exact point on which the entire load will balance. For loads of consistent material, this point will always be near the center of the load. If a load contains materials with different weights or densities, the load center will be on the side containing the heavy material. For example: If a pallet contains bricks on one side and pillows on the other, the center of gravity will obviously be closer to the side of the pallet containing the bricks. The distance from the edge of the load to the center of gravity is very important. If possible, the load must always be picked up on the side that is closest to the center of gravity. This will keep the load’s weight closer to the forklift.
The center of gravity of item A above is 24 inches from the edge.
Would it be better to pick up item B from the left or right side? The left side, of course, because the center of gravity is closer to the left side.
I. Background for the Trainer:
The concept of load center is a crucial part of understanding the capacity of a forklift. Make sure you, the trainer, understand this concept before trying to explain it in a class.
Most forklifts are rated for a 24-inch load center. The examples used below are based on this assumption. If your forklifts are rated differently, just change the numbers used in the examples.
Once you have explained how the load center affects capacity, use some examples from your facility to drive the point home. For example: If you move around crates that are 60 inches by 80 inches, discuss the load center distances (30" or 40") and how that reduces your lift truck’s capacity.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
The load center is the distance from the carriage, or vertical face of the forks, to the center of gravity of the load. For example, a pallet full of consistent material (e.g., bricks) usually measures about 4 feet by 4 feet. Therefore, the load center will be about 24 inches.
If your forklift is rated for 5,000 pounds at 24 inches, it can safely lift a 5,000-pounds load as long as the center of gravity is 24 inches or less from the front face of the forks.
If the load center is greater than 24 inches, it will reduce the lift truck’s capacity. Each forklift is different; however, it is safe to assume that for every additional inch beyond 24 inches, the capacity will be reduced by 100 pounds
Try to lift a load that is 80 inches long. The load center is 40 inches, or 16 inches greater than the rated load center of 24 inches. If 100 pounds capacity is lost per inch of extra load center, then the capacity of the lift truck is reduced by 1,600 pounds
I. Background for the Trainer:
The stability triangle is an effective way to show an operator how their actions can cause a lift truck to tip over so that they know what actions to avoid. This information on stability is primarily for sit-down counterbalance lift trucks. Other lift trucks, such as stand-up narrow aisle, will probably have different stability concerns.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
A sit-down counterbalance lift truck has a three-point suspension with the weight supported at each front tire and the center of the rear axle. This creates a triangle. As long as the combined center of gravity of the load and the forklift remain within this stability triangle, the forklift will not tip over.
The center of gravity of an unloaded forklift will be just below the operator’s seat.
With a load, the combined center of gravity (black circle) is close to the font edge of the stability triangle. A near-capacity load with a longer load center (e.g., 30 inches) will create a combined center of gravity that has moved beyond the front edge of the triangle. The forklift will tip forward.
I. Background for the Trainer:
This slide is used to show operators how their actions could cause a forklift to tip over. Usually, a tip over does not result from one action but a combination of two or more actions.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
What causes the center of gravity of a lift truck to move from side to side?
Forklift cornering, unbalanced load, tire going into a pothole, sloped surface
What causes the center of gravity of a lift truck to move forward?
Capacity load, mast tilted forward, stopping abruptly when going forward, quickly accelerating in reverse, driving down a ramp
What causes the center of gravity of a lift truck to move backward to the thin portion of the stability triangle?
Mast tilted back, stopping abruptly when going in reverse, quickly accelerating forward, driving up a ramp
Which of the above actions, when combined, could cause a forklift to tip over? A forklift cornering while driving up a ramp would cause the center of gravity to be back and to the side, thus resulting in a tipover. A forklift moving forward with a raised capacity load could tip forward if forced to stop abruptly. A forklift cornering with an unbalanced load and then hitting a pothole could easily tip over. These are just a few examples of how a forklift can be tipped over.
I. Background for the Trainer:
If your company regularly uses attachments, talk about specifics related to that attachment. Also, your operators must be trained on the operating procedures and hazards associated with using your specific attachments.
Your driving evaluation must include use of the attachment.
Also, do your nameplates reflect the fact that your company uses attachments?
II. Speaker’s Notes:
All attachments, such as carton clamps, drum clamps, paper roll clamps, rotators, and push-pull attachments, affect your lift truck’s capacity in two ways: -Adding an attachment is like permanently carrying a load. If the attachment weighs 1,000 pounds, your lift truck’s capacity is automatically reduced by 1,000 pounds -Attachments typically move the load further away from the lift truck, which increases your load center. If the attachment moves the load 8 inches away, it will reduce the capacity by approximately 800 pounds (100 pounds per inch) because loads that normally have a load center of 24" now have a 32" load center.
I. Background for the Trainer:
If the forklift operators drive safely and consider the combined actions that might cause them to tip over, they should never tip over in the first place. But, if there is a tipover, it is important that they know what to do.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
Do not jump. You should be wearing the seat belt so that it would be hard to jump if you had the seat belt secured. Many operators who thought they could jump clear of a tipover have been crushed by the overhead guard or the mast of the forklift. Seat belts must always be worn. Many fatalities have occurred when an unseatbelted operator was thrown clear of the forklift and struck his or her head on a solid object.
Brace yourself by holding firmly to the steering wheel and planting your feet.
Lean away from the fall.
I. Speaker’s Notes:
Does everyone understand the hazards specific to our workplace and the concept of forklift stability?
Are there any questions? Let’s move on to inspecting and operating a forklift.
I. Background for the Trainer:
Pass out the preoperation inspection form.
Note that the inspection described is for sit-down counterbalance lift trucks. However, it can easily be adjusted for other types of lift trucks.
How often do preoperation inspections have to be done at your company? This information should be detailed in your Powered Industrial Truck Program. OSHA requires inspections at the beginning of each shift if the forklift is used continuously. If the lift is used only sporadically each shift, then the inspection needs to be done only once per day.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
According to OSHA studies, 6 percent of lift truck-related accidents are caused by improper maintenance. A thorough preoperation inspection will catch almost any maintenance issue before it results in an accident.
Preoperation inspections must be done for the three reasons listed on the slide:
If an accident occurs because of a mechanical failure, it will be the operator’s responsibility if a preoperation inspection was not done.
OSHA requires preoperation inspections.
We want to demonstrate compliance with OSHA by having documented preoperation inspections conducted.
I. Background for the Trainer:
You can talk about this in class; however, this portion of the training will make the most impact if you actually take the employees to a forklift and show them how to do the preoperation inspection. You can either do this at the end of the class, or after this inspection section to give the employees a break from the classroom training.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
To begin a preoperation inspection, you will need to do a “walk around.” First—be sure the forklift has been properly disengaged. The key should be off, the parking brake on, the forks down, and the gears in neutral.
Next walk to either side of the forklift. Check the tires, be sure there is no debris around the axle or behind the mast, and make sure the overhead guard is solid
Next, look at the front of the truck—check that the forks and hoses are in good condition, fork pins are in place, the backrest is solid, and the mast and chains are greased.
Last, walk to the rear. Check that the counterbalance bolt is tight and the radiator is clear of debris.
The hood on propane trucks needs to be lifted so that the engine can be inspected:
Engine oil, transmission oil, coolant level, brake fluid, hydraulic fluid, fan belt tight and fan clear of debris, radiator clear of debris.
Inspect the propane tank and hose attachment for good condition. Does the propane tank clamp work effectively? Any signs of a propane leak?
Electric lift trucks:
Inspect the battery to ensure that it is in good condition.
I. Background for the Trainer:
After this slide would be a good time to take the employees out of the class to demonstrate the forklift preoperation inspection. Have a couple of the employees also do the inspection so that everyone gets an opportunity to see it done more
than once.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
When checking the tilt, listen for unusual sounds.
When checking the lift mechanism, inspect the hoses and chains and listen for unusual sounds. Check the parking brake by putting the forklift in gear (both forward and reverse) and stepping on the accelerator. The forklift should not move. Check the running brakes by moving forward and backward at a high speed and slamming on the brakes. The lift trucks should quickly stop.
Inspect the steering by doing full turns to the right and left; listen for unusual sounds.
I. Background for the Trainer:
The information on this slide is generic and may not apply to your facility. Feel free to change the bullet points so that they coincide with the general operating rules of your company. These and additional rules should be spelled out in your Powered Industrial Truck Program. What is your company’s policy concerning using a forklift as a man lift? In some states, this is illegal. Discuss this issue with the employees if permitted by your state and your company. Note that discussing “rules of the road” can put employees to sleep if you just
read them it point for point. Create interaction by asking questions such as What’s so important about wearing seat belts? They just slow me down when I climb in and out of the forklift. What’s wrong with standing under the elevated portion of a lift truck?
II. Speaker’s Notes:
For the next few slides, we will discuss the rules of the road. These are also outlined in your copy of the Powered Industrial Truck Program.
Standing under elevated forks may be deadly if the hydraulic system fails.
I. Speaker’s Notes:
Placing a weight on the back of a forklift can be extremely dangerous. Some companies might use sandbags, blocks of steel, or even people to keep the rear of the forklift on the ground if lifting the load causes the rear of the forklift to lift off the ground.
Obviously, the forklift is trying to lift a load over its capacity if this happens.
Also, adding weight to the back of the lift truck does not increase the capacity of the mast, hydraulic system, chains, tilt cylinders, etc.
Never drill a hole in the forks to use as a way of towing something or as a place to put a chain hook when hoisting. This ruins the integrity of the forks. Forklifts are equipped with a tow bar in the back for towing. Safe attachments can be purchased for use when hoisting.
I. Speaker’s Notes:
Remember to always look behind you before backing up.
The cage is there to protect your body.
Many operators have a bad habit of moving while raising or lowering a load. This can cause an unstable situation and a possible tipover.
Sound the horn at corners, crossing aisles, near doorways, etc.
A safe speed is a speed at which you can quickly and easily stop if a pedestrian steps out in front of you. Remember, the forklift steers from the rear, so be careful when turning because the rear end swings wide.
Watch for overhead installations when lifting your load.
I. Speaker’s Notes:
Loose objects or holes can cause the forklift to tip over.
Obviously, if the load blocks your forward vision, you must drive in reverse.
Passengers are never to be carried because they don’t have a seat, there is
no seat belt, and their body will be outside the protective cage.
Always be aware of pedestrians.
Operating too close to an edge is a disaster waiting to happen.
Eating and drinking distracts from the job of operating safely.
Horseplay does not need explanation.
I. Speaker’s Notes:
Turning on a ramp is a good way to tip over.
Keeping the load upgrade will keep the combined center of gravity in the center of the stability triangle. When not loaded, driving with the forks downgrade will keep the center of gravity toward the front, or wide, part of the stability triangle.
Crossing railroad tracks diagonally will help keep the lift truck stable.
If you park within 8 feet of the center of railroad tracks, you may be hit by a train when it passes.
I. Background for the Trainer:
Does your company have proper dock plates, wheel chocks, and trailer supports?
II. Speaker’s Notes:
These four habits are crucial to safety when loading/unloading trailers with a lift truck:
Check the dock plate for cracks or signs of wear, and be sure it is properly secured.
The trailer floor may have holes that the tire of a forklift could fall into, causing
a tipover.
Chock the trailer wheels to prevent trailer creep.
Support the nose of the trailer.
I. Background for the Trainer:
Does your company have a policy for removing the key when parking, or does the key always stay with the lift truck?
Does your company have designated areas for parking forklifts?
II. Speaker’s Notes:
Make sure you do not park in a way that will block exits or access to emergency equipment.
To park follow the steps in the slide.
I. Background for the Trainer:
What is your company’s policy regarding propane refueling? Are all operators permitted to fill propane cylinders, or is doing it limited to specially trained personnel?
It is important to physically demonstrate how to refuel or replace propane tanks.
Refer to the forklift’s manual for specific refueling procedures.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
Do not smoke around propane. It is a highly combustible gas that can cause a fire or even explode if not handled correctly. Report propane leaks immediately. Leaks can be detected by the distinct odor, a hissing sound, and frost on the fittings. Minimum PPE requirements for propane refueling are gloves and safety glasses. Additional PPE might be goggles or a face shield.
I. Background for the Trainer:
Refer to the forklift’s manual for specific refueling procedures.
Can all the operators change out or inspect batteries, or is this job limited to specially trained individuals?
II. Speaker’s Notes:
Hydrogen gas is released during the recharging process, so smoking in the area is not a good idea.
Clean up electrolyte spills with baking soda (acid neutralizer) and water.
Never remove battery caps except to add water or take hydrometer readings.
Always wear PPE when working with batteries because you never know when the electrolyte might bubble or gas up.
I. Speaker’s Notes:
Does everyone understand the inspection and operating procedures?
Are there any questions?
Let’s move on to the quiz.
I. Background for the Trainer:
Review the hazards specific to your facility.
Discuss how the load center impacts capacity.
Reemphasize the importance of preoperation inspections.
Ask if there are any questions on the rules of the road.
Review hazards of refueling.
II. Speaker’s Notes:
Are there any questions on any of the information we went over today before we take the quiz?
I. Background for the Trainer:
Remind employees that the quiz is to encourage further discussion and to help you, the trainer, ensure that everyone understands the material.